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AusGUIDE 



AusGUIDEIines 



1 The Logical Framework Approach 



«^^t^ ^AusAJD 



/AusAlD 



Australian Agency for International Development 

The Australian Government's 

Copyright Commonwealth of Australia 2000 Overseas Aid Program 



AusGUIDEIines 

1 The Logical Framework Approach 

1.1 Overview 



What is the Logical Framework Approach? 


2 


The history of LFA 


2 


When should LFA be used? 


3 


Who should be involved? 


4 


1 .2 Analysing the situation 


4 


Problem analysis and the problem tree 


4 


Stakeholder analysis 


8 


Analysis of objectives 


12 


Analysis of alternative strategies 


13 


Link to the Logframe matrix 


15 


1.3 The Logframe matrix 


15 


Format 


15 


Terminology 


18 


Vertical Logic 


20 


Assumptions and risks 


24 


Horizontal logic 


26 


Some strengths and weaknesses of LFA 


31 


1 .4 Implementation, resource and cost schedules 


32 



Attached 

Examples of outputs for key result areas 33 

Logframe Matrix examples 36 



Draft 10-03-00 

AusGUIDEIines 

1 The Logical Framework Approach 

1.1 Overview 

Preparing a Logframe matrix is normally required by AusAID as part of its project 
design procedures. These guidelines on the Logical Framework Approach (LFA) 
are therefore provided as a reference for AusAID officers 
and consultants involved in project preparation. The aim is to support informed 
(and more consistent) application of this useful analytical and presentational tool. 

The Logical Framework Approach is an 'aid to thinking', not a substitute for 
creative analysis. Testing of innovative new ways in which to use the analytical 
framework provided by LFA is encouraged. 

What is the Logical Framework Approach? 

LFA is an analytical, presentational and management tool which can help planners 
and managers: 

analyse the existing situation during project preparation; 

establish a logical hierarchy of means by which objectives 

will be reached; 

identify some of the potential risks; 

establish how outputs and outcomes might best be monitored 

and evaluated; and 

present a summary of the project in a standard format. 

A distinction is usefully made between what is known as the Logical Framework 
Approach (LFA) and the Logical Framework Matrix. The approach involves 
problem analysis, stakeholder analysis, developing a hierarchy of objectives and 
selecting a preferred implementation strategy. The product of this analytical 
approach is the matrix (the Logframe), which summarises what the project intends 
to do and how, what the key assumptions are, and how outputs and outcomes will 
be monitored and evaluated. 

The matrix structure is shown in Figure 1, together with a brief description of the 
information that the matrix contains. 

The history of LFA 

LFA was first formally adopted as a planning tool for overseas development 
activities by USAID in the early 1970s. Its origins can be traced back to private 
sector management theory, such as the 'management by objectives' approach 
which initially became popular in the 1960s. 

LFA has since been adopted, and adapted as a planning and management tool by a 
large number of agencies involved in providing development assistance. These 
include the British DFID, Canada's CIDA, the OECD Expert Group on Aid 
Evaluation, the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), 
Australia's AusAID and Germany's GTZ. AusAID has been using 
LFA as a formal part of its activity cycle management procedures since the mid- 
1980s. 



AusGUIDEIines 2 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



While it is not without its critics, LFA has proved popular and its use continues to 
expand into new agencies. It helps to provide a standardised summary of the 
project and its logic which can be used across the agency. 



Figure 1 



Logframe Matrix structure 



Project 


Indicators 


Means of 


Assumptions 


Description 




Verification 




Goal: The broader 


Measures of the 


Sources of 




development 


extent to which a 


information and 




impact to which the 


contribution to the 


methods used to 




project contributes 


goal has been made. 


collect and report 




- at a national and 


Used during 


it 




sectoral level. 


evaluation. 






Purpose: 


Conditions at the end 


Sources of 


Assumptions 


The development 


of the project 


information and 


concerning the 


outcome expected 


indicating that the 


methods used to 


purpose/goal 


at the end of the 


Purpose has been 


collect and report 


linkage 


project. All 


achieved. Used for 


it 




components will 


project completion 






contribute to this. 


and evaluation. 






Component 


Measures of the 


Sources of 


Assumptions 


Objectives: 


extent to which 


information and 


concerning the 


The expected 


component 


methods used to 


component 


outcome 


objectives have been 


collect and report 


objective/purpose 


of producing each 


achieved. Used 


it 


linkage 


component's 


during review and 






outputs. 


evaluation. 






Outputs: 


Measures of the 


Sources of 


Assumptions 


The direct 


quantity and quality 


information and 


concerning the 


measurable results 


of outputs and the 


methods used to 


output/componen 


(goods and services) 


timing of their 


collect and report 


t objective linkage 


of the project which 


delivery. Used during 


it 




are largely under 


monitoring and 






project 


review. 






management's 








control 








Activities: 


Implementation/work 


Sources of 


Assumptions 


The tasks carried 


program targets. 


information and 


concerning the 


out to implement 


Used during 


methods used to 


activity/output 


the project and 


monitoring. 


collect and report 


linkage 


deliver the 




it 




identified outputs. 









When should LFA be used? 

LFA can be used throughout the activity management cycle in: 

• identifying and assessing activities that fit within the scope of country 
programs; 

• preparing the project design in a systematic and logical way; 

• appraising project designs; 

• implementing approved projects; and 

• monitoring and evaluating project progress and performance. 

LFA is best started early in the Activity Cycle but the same analytical tools can be used to 
help review and restructure ongoing projects which have not previously been designed 
using LFA principles. As LFA is an 'aid to thinking', it has widespread and flexible 
application. 



AusGUIDEIines 



The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Who should be involved? 

Project planning and management should always be approached as a team task. 
This requires that adequate opportunity be given to colleagues and key 
stakeholders to provide input to the process and product of LFA. This can be 
supported by: 

• taking time to explain the principles of LFA and clarifying the 
terminology used; 

• integrating effective team work and adult learning methods into 
meetings with stakeholder groups; and 

• ensuring that stakeholder groups are involved in the initial situation 
and/or problem analysis. 

However, LFA is not a tool that all community members should necessarily be 
required to understand or use. While 'logical' in concept, its effective application 
poses many challenges, even to the experienced user. 

1 .2 Analysing the situation 

Prior to beginning work on project design and the construction of a Logframe 
matrix it is important to undertake a structured analysis of the existing situation. 
LFA incorporates four main steps to help guide this process: 

• problem analysis; 

• stakeholder analysis; 

• objectives analysis; and 

• selection of a preferred implementation strategy. 
Each step is described further below. 

Problem analysis and the problem tree 

Overview 

Development projects are usually proposed as a response to addressing and 
overcoming identified development problems. Problem analysis involves 
identifying what the main problems are and establishing the cause and effect 
relationships between these problems. The key purpose of this analysis is to try and 
ensure that 'root causes' are identified and subsequently addressed in the project 
design, not just the symptoms of the problem(s). 

A useful medical analogy can be used to emphasise this point: If you go to the 
doctor with a bad headache, and the doctor prescribes a pain killer without any 
further detailed diagnosis, the doctor is treating the effect and not the cause of your 
problem. Without finding out what is causing the headache in the first place, it is 
likely that pain will persist as soon as the medication wears off. Projects which 
only address the effects of problems, and not underlying causes, are therefore 
unlikely to bring about sustainable benefits. 

One main tool used in problem analysis is the 'problem tree', a simplified example 
of which is shown in Figure 2 for an acquaculture project. 



AusGUIDEIines 4 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Figure 2 



Problem tree structure 



Low incomes 



Higin levels of 
protein malnutrition 



Limited surplus 
for sale 



Effect 
▲ 



Lack of protein 
available in local 



I 



Inadequate levels of fresh-water 
fish production available for use 



Fingerling 

production 

limited 



Low 

productivity of 

fish ponds 



High post- 
harvest 

wastanp 



L 



Dilapidated 
hatchery 
centres 



Poor pond 

management 

practices 



Inadequate 
processing 
technology 



Poor 

management and 

lack of 



Inadequate 
marketing 
facilities 



Lack of knowledge 

and appropriate 

incentives 



Lack of 
investment 



Cause 



AusGUIDEIines 



The Logical Framework Approach 



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Important points to note about using this tool are: 

• It should be undertaken as a group activity involving stakeholders who 
can contribute relevant technical and local knowledge. 

• It may be appropriate to undertake a number of separate problem 
analysis exercises with different stakeholder groups, to help determine 
different perspectives and how priorities vary. 

• The process is as important as the product. The exercise should be 
presented as a learning experience for all those involved, and as an 
opportunity for different views and interests to be presented and 
discussed. However, one should not necessarily expect full consensus 
among stakeholders on what the priority problems are; and 

• It is important to recognise that the product (the problem tree diagram) 
should provide a simplified but nevertheless robust version of reality. 
If it is too complicated, it is likely to be less useful in providing 
direction to subsequent steps in the analysis. 

Preparatory steps 

Before starting work on preparing a problem tree: 

Clarify the scope of the investigation or analysis. If you are participating 
in a project preparation mission, others will have already identified (at least 
to some extent) the main development problems they are concerned with, or 
opportunities they have seen. Understanding this will help you focus and structure 
the direction of the analysis. You will not want, or be able, to deal with a limitless 
range of problems. 

Inform yourself further. Collect and review existing background information on 
the main issue(s) of concern and on the geographic area(s) you will be working in. 
Are you clear what the main issues are, or are likely to be? 

Identify the group(s). Who do you need to bring together to ensure the group is 
well informed and can help to analyse and discuss the main issues that the analysis 
will focus on? For example, if you are looking at a health and sanitation problem 
which may require a water supply as part of the solution, make sure that you have 
available to join you a water supply engineer and an environmental health officer 
(among others). Also, be sure to involve community representatives that you 
believe would be willing and able to contribute to this kind of exercise. A 
representative and technically competent group is required to help fully identify, 
analyse and organise ideas. 

Participants need to be informed to be useful and productive. They should know 
why they are doing the analysis, what the process involves and what information 
they are expected to contribute. 

Conduct the analysis. The specific steps required in conducting a problem 
analysis and preparing a problem tree are described below. Cards, marker pens, 
wall space for display and some means of sticking and moving cards on the display 
area are essential to undertaking this exercise successfully. 

Main steps in preparing tlie problem tree 

Identifying and listing the main problems 

• Explain the purpose of the exercise and the context within which it is 
taking place, eg preparation of a primary health care project. Explain 
the problem tree method and the input expected from the participants. 
Provide some examples of the cause and effect relationship before 
starting, emphasising the importance of identifying root causes. 



AusGUIDEIines 6 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



• Using contributions from the group, list all the negative statements 
about the situation you are analysing. This can be undertaken as a 
brainstorming session. 

• Print each problem statement in clear language on a card and display 
this on some suitable wall space. 

Identifying core problems 

• Through discussions, identify a consensus core problem - the one(s) 
which appear to be linked to most negative statements. 

• Print a precise definition of the core problem on a card (if the existing 
statement requires further clarification). 

• Display the card on a wall (or on the floor) so that the whole 
group can clearly see it. 

Identifying cause and effect 

• Begin to distribute the negative statement cards according to whether 
they are 'causes', ie leading to the core problem, or 'effects', ie 
resulting from the core problem. Do this until all 

causes are below the core problem and all effects are above the core 
problem. At any stage in the exercise, those statements that are 
considered to be unclear should either be more clearly specified or 
discarded. Problems that are clear but very general in nature and 
which affect not only this issue but would apply to almost 
any development problem can be treated as 'overall constraints' and 
moved to the side of the main problem tree. This helps keep the core 
problem tree focused and manageable. You can be guided in this by 
considering whether or not the problem is likely to be one which can 
be addressed by a project based solution. If not, it 
is a constraint. 

• Then the guiding questioning for further structuring the statements 
into a problem tree becomes "What leads to that?" Choose any 
negative statement printed as a problem on the cards and ask: "What 
leads to that?" Then select from the cards the most likely cause of the 
problem, and place it below the chosen statement. 

• If there are two or more causes combining to produce an effect, place 
them side by side below the resulting effect. 

• After you have placed the card or cards for each relationship, pause to 
review. Then ask the group if there are more causes leading to that 
problem. 

• Similarly you must ask if there are any more effects resulting 
from that problem. 

• If there are multiple effects resulting from a cause, place them side by 
side and above the cause(s). 



Checking the logic 



At each stage you should invite participants to move the cards, 

ie to suggest or hypothesise other relationships. 

When you have placed all cards, review the structure to ensure that 

related streams of cause and effect are close to each other on the 

problem diagram. 

Choose one of the cards at the top line of your Problem Tree, then 

work back through the diagram according to the guiding question: 

"What leads to, or causes, that?" in order to check the logic or 

completeness of your cause-effect structure. 



AusGUIDEIines 7 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 

Drafting the problem tree diagram 

• Then draw in vertical links to show cause-effect relationships, 
and horizontal links to show joint causes and combined effects. 

• Copy your diagram onto a sheet of paper and distribute it for further 
comment and variations within an appropriate time period. 

Dealing with overall constraints 

Overarching development problems that are identified during the analysis, but 
which cannot be addressed directly by a project based intervention, should be taken 
out of the main problem tree diagram and considered as overall constraints. 
Examples are: institutional corruption, lack of government revenue, high 
population pressure. These overall constraints must then be considered as part of 
the risk analysis undertaken later in the project preparation process. 

An example of a problem tree diagram that was prepared as a group activity for a 
training project in Fiji is shown in Figure 3. 

Once the group is generally happy with the main elements of the problem tree, 
move on to investigating and documenting possible project solutions through using 
stakeholder analysis, the objective tree, alternatives analysis and finally the Logical 
Framework Matrix itself. 



Stakeholder analysis 



Having identified the main problems and the cause and effect relationship between 
them, it is then important to give further consideration to who these problems 
actually impact on most, and what the roles and interests of different stakeholders 
might be in addressing the problems and reaching solutions. 

The main purposes of stakeholder analysis are: 

• To better address distributional and social impacts of projects, 
programs and policies; and 

• To identify existing or potential conflicts, and factor appropriate 
mitigation strategies into activity design. 

Stakeholder analysis is thus about asking the questions: "Whose problem" and, if a 
project intervention strategy is proposed: "Who will benefit". 

The main steps in stakeholder analysis include 

• Identifying the principal stakeholders (these can be various levels, eg 
local, regional, national); 

• Investigating their roles, interests, relative power and capacity to 
participate; 

• Identifying the extent of cooperation or conflict in the relationship 
between stakeholders; and 

• Interpreting the findings of the analysis and defining how this should 
be incorporated into project design. 

When looking at who the stakeholders are, it is useful to distinguish between the 
'target group' and the broader group of stakeholders (the target group being one of 
the principal stakeholders). 



AusGUIDEIines 8 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



OVERALL CONSTRAINTS 

15 

Limited application ofmodern 

adm in., business & H RD 
practices within PFP 



16 

inadequate 

m onitoring & control 

processes 



17 

Inefficient Force 
structure 







18 




Ce 


ntra 


ised con 


rol 


stif 


es 


nitiative f 


om 




lov 


ver ranks 





19 




Ineffective 








dissem ination 




throughout force 





20 

Limited career and training 
opportunities for women 



21 

No Force 
strategic plan 



22 

Low pay structu re, 

particuiariy for m iddle & 

junior ranks 



Figure 3 - Fiji Police Probiem Tree 



Effects 

t 

Focal P roblem s 

t 

Causes 









5 










Lim 


ed 


com 


m 


un 


ty 


nput 


to 


po 


ice 


piar 


ni 


nfl 


or 


joint 




crim 


e P 


eve 


nti 


Dn 


St 


ateg 


es 



Absence of community 
attitude s urveys 



Constrained economic & sociaideveiopment in 



Unacceptabie levels ofcrime and com munity dissatisfaction with police perform ance 



Inadequate ievel of overali police perform anc 



I 



Lack of confidence among police to act or respond to changing 
needs/new chaiienges 



: : :L; irniited :s:k:i:Hs: dielwefapithieiiiit : : 



& pro V lis ion or quality triairfirfgi 



T 



Inadequate trainer skiiis 

& unrealised potential of 

DTO s & other training 

agenc ies 



Lack of appropriate written 

policy & criteria for the 

selection of trainers 



No defined & structured process 

for training needs analysis, 

course design, trainee selection 

& validation 

* ^^ ^ 



Inadequate & ill-maintained 
train ing equipment & facilities 



No com prehensive 
training strategy 



1 1 

Poorly structured & rs 
Academy 



I 



10 

Lim ited availability of 
written protocols 



1 2 

Insular perspective 
inhibits im proved 
training provision 



T 



14 

P revious lack of 

commitmentto the proper 

provision of train ing 





13 


Inapprop 


lately m anaged 


train 


ing budget 



AusGUIDEIines 
Approach 



10 



The Logical Framework 



Draft 10-03-00 



Target group 

The target group are those who are directly affected by the problems in question 
and who might be beneficiaries of any proposed project solution. 

Within any geographic area and within any 'community' there will always be 
considerable differences in people' s access to resources and development 
opportunities. Some individuals and groups will be benefiting from the existing 
social, political or economic relationships and some will not. It is therefore 
important to gain some understanding about how different groups within the 
community are affected by specific development problems. 

Similarly, once we choose a particular project intervention, there will usually be 
some groups who will benefit more than others. It is important to understand this 
so that the risks of pursuing the project strategy can be assessed in regard to the 
likely social and political support and opposition to the planned project. Strategies 
can then be devised to counter opposition, and/or strengthen support. 

The groups who might be specifically considered in any such analysis would 
depend on the nature of the problems, but could include: 

Men/women 

Rich/poor 

Young/old 

Small scale/large scale farmers 

Rural/urban dwellers 

Lando wners/1 andles s 

Farmers/traders 

Each of these groups need to be clearly defined so that there is little ambiguity as to 
who we are talking about. 

Stakeholders 

Stakeholders include both the target group and other government or private 
agencies (or groups) who have an interest in, or a responsibility for, addressing the 
identified development problems. Stakeholders might include individuals, 
communities, institutions, commercial groups or policy makers. 

For most bilateral aid projects the partner government's implementing line 
agencies will be primary stakeholders. Adequate analysis of their roles, 
interests and capacity to participate should therefore be factored into project 
preparation. 

An example of two matrix formats that can be used to help structure a stakeholder 
analysis are shown in Figure 4. The first can be used to provide a summary profile 
of how different stakeholders are affected by the main problem(s), and the second 
summarises how a proposed project intervention might affect different groups. The 
second matrix would therefore not be completed until after potential project 
objectives had been identified. 



AusGUIDEIines 11 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Figure 4 Stakeholder analysis matrix - How affected by the problem(s) 

Stakeholder How affected by Capacity/motivati Relationship 

the problem(s)? on to participate with other 

in addressing the stakeholders 
problem(s) (eg partnership 

or conflict) 



Stakeholder analysis matrix - Expected impacts of proposed intervention/solution 

Stakehold Stakeholder's Positive Negative Net impact 

er main impacts/benefi impacts/cos 

objectives ts ts 



Both of these matrix formats can be adapted to include different or additional 
information about the main stakeholder groups depending on the scope and focus 
of the issues being addressed. 

It is important to see stakeholder analysis as part of the iterative process of project 
planning. As both problems and potential project objectives are analysed in more 
detail, the stakeholder analysis should be reviewed and updated to account for the 
new information which comes to light. 



Analysis of objectives 



Objective trees should be prepared after the problem tree has been completed and 
an initial stakeholder analysis has been undertaken. 

In its simplest form, the objective tree uses exactly the same structure as the 
problem tree, but with the problem statements (negatives) turned into objective 
statements (positives). However, the results of the stakeholder analysis may have 
helped to give better focus to priority problems and not all of the original problem 
statements may therefore need to be translated into objective statements. 

While the problem tree shows the cause and effect relationship between problems, 
the objective tree shows the means - end relationship between objectives. This 
leads directly into developing the project's narrative description in the Logical 
Framework Matrix. 

Once the negative statements from the problem tree have been re-worded to 
positive statements, you should then check: 

Are the statements are clear and unambiguous? 

Are the links between each statement are logical and reasonable? 

(Will the achievement of one help support the attainment of another 

that is above it in the hierarchy?) 

Is there a need to add any other positive actions and/or statements? 

More detail may be required. 

Are the positive actions at one level sufficient to lead to the result 

above? 

Is the overall structure for simple and clear? Simplify if possible or 
necessary. 



AusGUIDEIines 12 The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Once these main points have been checked, the proposed objective tree structure 
can be circulated for further comment and feedback. 

An example of an objective tree (developed from the problem tree shown in Figure 
3) is shown in Figure 5. 

Analysis of alternative strategies 

During the process of analysing the problems, stakeholder issues and developing a 
draft objective tree, views on the potential merits or difficulties associated with 
different possible project interventions are likely to have been developed and 
discussed by the design team. These options then need to be further scrutinised to 
help firm up the likely scope of the project before more detailed design takes place. 

The type of questions that might need to be asked (and answered) could include: 
Should all of the identified problems and/or objectives be tackled, or a 
selected few? 

What is the combination of interventions that are most likely 
to bring about the desired results and promote sustainability 
of benefits? 

What are the likely capital and recurrent cost implications of different 
possible interventions, and what can be realistically afforded? 
Which strategy will best support participation by both women 
and men? 

Which strategy will most effectively support institutional 
strengthening objectives? and 
How can negative environmental impacts be best mitigated? 

To assess alternative interventions it is useful to identify and agree on a number of 
assessment criteria against which alternative interventions can be ranked or scored. 
Criteria that may be used to help make a broad assessment 
of different intervention options could include the expected: 

• benefits to target groups - equity and participation 

• total cost and recurrent cost implications 

• financial and economic viability 

• technical feasibility 

• ability to repair and maintain assets 

• sustainability 

• contribution to institutional strengthening and 
management capacity building 

• environmental impact, and 

• compatibility of project with sector or program priorities. 



AusGUIDEIines 13 The Logical Framework Approach 



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Figure 5: Objective tree example - (derived from tlie problem tree in Figure 3) 



Reduced levels of crime and 
improved community 
satiRfantinn with FPF 



Improved level of 
overall police 
performance 



T 



Upgraded 

professional skills 

within the FPF 



Improved trainer 
skills and more 
effective DTOs 



I 



Improved confidence of 

officers to respond to 

changing needs 



T 



More and better 

training available to 

FPF members 



Criteria for trainer 

selection and TOT 

program established 



Strengthened institutional 

capacity to support the 

training function in the FPF 



New courses 

designed and 

delivered 



Training strategy 
developed 



Community surveys to 
provide input to 
training design 



Training needs 
analysis carried out 



Provide input from 

outside agencies in 

training design 



Develop written 
protocols 



Improve 
management of 
training budget 



Restructure police 
academy 



Upgraded training 

equipment and 

facilities 



AusGUIDEIines 



14 



The Logical Framework Guidelines 



Draft 10-03-00 



A project design document should demonstrate to AusAID and the partner 
government that the main alternative options have been assessed and considered. 
There is always more than one way to address a problem and reach a solution. The 
aim is to find the best way, subject to meeting specified criteria. 

However, it is important to emphasise again that project planning is not a linear 
process. One does not move mechanistically from one step to the next, always in a 
forward direction, and arrive automatically at the best solution. Planning is an 
iterative and creative process, and selecting a design option often involves 
significant leaps in thinking which cannot be neatly slotted 
into a 'stage' in the planning process. 



Link to the Logframe matrix 

Figure 6 shows how the objective tree can be used to start framing the objectives 
hierarchy in the first column of the Logframe matrix. Objectives 
at the top of the tree should help frame goal and purpose statements, while further 
down the tree component objective and output statements can be identified. 
However, it should not be expected that the objective tree can be transposed 
directly, without further adjustment, into the hierarchy of the project description in 
the matrix. Further adjustment and refinement of statements is usually required and 
checking of the means-ends logic should 
be ongoing as the matrix is developed. 

The Fiji Police Training Project logframe matrix is provided as an example 
in Logframe matrix examples (attached). 

1 .3 The Logframe matrix 
Format 

The result of the logical framework analysis is presented in a matrix. 
The matrix should provide a summary of the project design and, when 
detailed down to output level, should generally be no more than five 
pages long. 

The Logframe matrix has four columns and usually four or five rows, depending on 
the number of levels of objectives used to explain the 
means-ends relationship of the project. 

The vertical logic identifies what the project intends to do, clarifies the 
causal relationships, and specifies the important assumptions and uncertainties 
beyond the project manager's control (columns 1 and 4). 

The horizontal logic defines how project objectives specified in the project 
description will be measured, and the means by which the measurement will be 
verified (columns 2 and 3). This provides the framework for project monitoring 
and evaluation. 



AusGUIDEIines 15 The Logical Framework 

Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Figure 7 shows the structure of the matrix and indicates the general sequence for 
completing its component parts. The project description is completed first, then the 
assumptions, indicators, and finally the means of verification. However, 
completing the matrix must be approached as an iterative learning process. As one 
part of the matrix is completed, there is a need to look back 
at what has been said in previous parts to review and test whether or not the logic 
still holds. This process will often require the modification of previous 
descriptions. 



AusGUIDEIines 16 The Logical Framework 

Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Figure 6 



Objective Tree 



To improve the level of police performance 

and increase community satisfaction with the 

service provided by the Fiji Police Force 



To upgrade professional skills 
throughout the FRF 




To increase the quantity 

and quality of training 

delivered to force members 



To establish an effective 

institutional capacity to support 

the training function within the 

FPF 



Targeted advanced 

training delivered. 

Program of detective 

training established. 

A series of special 

courses delivered 



Training strategy developed. 

FPF academy restructured. 

Trainee selection procedures 

established. 

Etc 



Etc 



To establish a sustainable 

capacity to develop and 

manage the provision of 

quality training 



TNA carried out. 

New courses designed. 

Annual training 

calendar produced. 

Quality control systems 

established 



Logframe Vertical Logic 



End 



Component 
objectives 



Outputs 



Means 



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The Logical Framework Approach 



Draft 10-03-00 



Figure 7 


Logframe matrix structure and sequence 


for completion 


Project 
Description 


Indicators IWeans of 
verification 
(IVIOVs) 


Assumptio 
ns 


Goal 


Indicators MOVs 




Purpose 


Indicators MOVs 


Assumptions 


Component 
Objectives 


Indicators IVlOVs 


Assumptions 



Outputs 



Activities 



Indicators 

IVlilestones 
specified in activity 
schedules and 
scope of services 



MOVs 

Management 
reports on 
physical and 
financial progress 



Assumptions 
Assumptions 



The option of whether or not to include both an overall project purpose and 
component objectives should be left open to the project designers, depending on 
the scope and complexity of the project. For example, in some cases it may be 
sufficient to have a goal and component objectives, and to leave out the purpose. 

It is also recommended that in most cases the matrix itself should not include 
a listing of the activities required to produce project outputs. The main reason for 
this is to keep the matrix as a concise summary of what the project aims 
to deliver, rather than specifying in too much detail how it will be delivered. 
This is also consistent with AusAID's focus on using output contracts. Where 
required, activities should be separately detailed in an activity schedule format, 
using reference numbers to link each group of activities to a specific output. 

It is important to keep firmly in mind that the Logframe matrix produced during 
design is essentially a draft. It provides a snapshot in time. It will need to be 
reassessed, refined and updated on an ongoing basis once project implementation 
starts. There is a careful balance to achieve. On the one hand 
it is important to provide enough detail in the design matrix to provide a clear and 
logical plan of action (which can be costed and contracted). On the other hand it is 
important to avoid being too prescriptive and establishing too rigid a structure that 
is more likely to constrain than facilitate project implementation. 



Terminology 



A brief description of the terminology is given below: 

Project description provides a narrative summary of what the project intends to 
achieve and how. It describes the means by which desired ends are to be achieved 
(the vertical logic). 

Goal refers to the sectoral or national objectives to which the project is designed to 
contribute, eg increased incomes, improved nutritional status, reduced crime. It can 
also be referred to as describing the expected impact 
of the project. The goal is thus a statement of intention. 

Purpose refers to what the project is expected to achieve in terms of development 
outcome. Examples might include increased agricultural production, higher 
immunisation coverage, cleaner water, or improved local management systems and 
capacity. There should generally be only one 
purpose statement. 

Component Objectives. Where the project or program is relatively large and has a 
number of components (output/activity areas) it is useful to give each component 



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an objective statement. These statements should provide a logical link between the 
outputs of that component and the project purpose. 

Outputs refer to the specific results and tangible products (goods and services) 

produced by undertaking a series of tasks or activities. Examples might include: 

irrigation systems or water supplies constructed, areas planted/developed, children 

immunised, buildings or other infrastructure built, policy guidelines produced, and 

staff trained. Each component should have 

at least one contributing output, and will often have up to four or five. 

The delivery of project outputs should be largely under project management's 

control. 

Activities refer to the specific tasks undertaken to achieve the required outputs 
Examples for a new community water supply might include: further design, 
establishing water users committee and maintenance procedures, site preparation, 
collection of local materials, tank construction and pipe laying, digging soak pits, 
and commissioning. However, the Logframe matrix should not include too much 
detail on activities otherwise it becomes too lengthy and potentially prescriptive. If 
detailed activity specification is required, this should be presented separately in an 
activity schedule/gantt chart format and not in the matrix itself. 

Inputs refer to the resources required to undertake the activities and produce the 
outputs, eg as personnel, equipment, and materials. However, inputs should not be 
included in the matrix format. 

Assumptions. Assumptions refer to conditions which could affect the progress or 
success of the project, but over which the project manager has no direct control, eg 
price changes, rainfall, land reform policies, non-enforcement of supporting 
legislation. An assumption is a positive statement of a condition that must be met in 
order for project objectives to be achieved. A risk is a negative statement of what 
might prevent objectives being achieved. 

Indicators. Indicators refer to the information we need to help us determine 
progress towards meeting project objectives. An indicator should provide, where 
possible, a clearly defined unit of measurement and a target detailing the quantity, 
quality and timing of expected results. 

Means of verification (MOVs). Means of verification should clearly specify the 
expected source of the information we need to collect. We need to consider how 
the information will be collected (method), who will be responsible, and the 
frequency with which the information should be provided. 



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Vertical Logic 

If-then causality 

Constructing the project description of the matrix involves a detailed breakdown of 
the chain of causality in the project design. This can be expressed in terms of: 

• IF inputs are provided, THEN activities can be undertaken; 

• IF activities are undertaken, THEN outputs will be produced; 

• IF outputs are produced, THEN component objectives will be 
achieved; 

• IF component objectives are achieved, THEN the project purpose 
will be supported; 

• IF the project purpose is supported, this should then contribute 
towards the overall goal. 

Each level thus provides the rationale for the next level down: the goal helps define 
the purpose, the purpose the component objectives, and so on down 
the hierarchy. 

Management influence 

The Logframe helps to indicate the degree of control managers have over 
the project. Managers should have considerable direct control over inputs, 
activities and outputs, but can only be expected to exert influence over the 
achievement of project purposes through the way in which outputs are managed. 
Project managers usually have no direct influence over achieving 
the goal, and can only be expected to monitor the broader policy and program 
environment to help ensure the project continues to be contextually relevant. 

The necessary and sufficient conditions within the vertical logic are another way 
of viewing this issue. These indicate that: 

• Achieving the purpose is necessary but not sufficient to attain the 
goal. This is because the project is but one of a number of projects or 
initiatives that contribute to the goal. 

• Producing the project outputs is necessary but may not be sufficient 
to achieve the component objectives. Other factors beyond the 
project's control are again likely to have an influence on achievement 
of component objectives. 

• Carrying out project activities should be necessary and sufficient to 
produce the required outputs (although some risks will always 
remain). 

In defining project outputs it is also necessary to recognise that there may be no 
single agency or manager who has complete control over their delivery. 
In the case of AusAID funded projects, many project outputs will be the result of 
the endeavours of both a local implementing agency(s) and an Australian 
contractor. In terms of contracting a project, a distinction then needs to be made 
between aproject output and a contractible output (outputs or milestones that 
AusAID can contract a consultancy firm to deliver). This issue is further discussed 
in the section 'project outputs and contractible outputs'. 

Project components 

A project component consists of a sub-set of inputs, activities and outputs that 
serve a single purpose. Components may be identified on the basis of their sectoral. 



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functional or institutional focus. For example an agricultural training project might 
include components which focus on: 

• training program design and delivery 

• facilities upgrading 

• student loans scheme, and 

• project management. 

Each of these components has a different technical focus, is likely to be managed 
by different groups within the targeted institution(s), and therefore merit being 
designed as separate project components. 

Reference numbers and flow charts 

Using reference numbers is a useful device to help the Logframe user negotiate 
around the logic of the matrix, particularly when the matrix is presented on more 
than one page. This helps the reader understand which activities, outputs and 
purposes are linked and also provides a clear reference point when preparing 
activity, resource and cost schedules linked to the Logframe matrix. 

Use of a flow chart format to present a summary of outputs, component objectives, 
purpose and the goal is also a useful device. Such a format structure is shown 
below in Figure 8. 

Figure 8 



Goal 



Purpose 



X 



Component 1 
Objective 



X 



Output 1.1 



Activities 
1.1.1 
1.1.2 
1.1.3 
Etc 



I 



X 



Output 1 .2 



Activities 
1.2.1 
1.2.2 
1.2.3 
Etc 



X 



Component 2 
Objective 



X 



X 



Output 2.1 



Activities 

2.1.1 

2.1.2 

2.1.3 

Etc 



X 



Output 2.2 



Etc 



Writing clear objective statements 

It is useful to standardise the way in which the hierarchy of project objectives are 
described in the matrix. This helps the reader recognise more easily what 



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is a purpose, an output or activity statement. A convention should therefore be used 
whereby a goal, purpose and component objective statement is always written in 
the infinitive ('to do something'), an output is described in the future perfect 
('something will have been produced'), and an activity is described in the present 
tense ('do something'). An example of what is meant is provided below: 

Goal To contribute to improved community 

health on a sustainable basis 

Purpose or To provide a clean, reliable and 

Objective sustainable supply of water adequate for 

community needs 

Output A reticulated water supply will have been 

established/Village water supply 
maintenance technicians will have been 
trained. 

Activity Conduct site survey, build header tank, 

prepare training materials, design user 
pays system. 

A common problem with poorly constructed Logframes is that the different levels 
of the project description tend to simply reword statements at other levels. Care 
should be taken to avoid this happening. 

Project outputs and contractible outputs 

In preparing the Logframe matrix, the focus should be on defining the outputs that 
the project aims to produce. However, these outputs may not be the same as the 
outputs that the Australian contractor can be directly contracted to deliver. This is 
because the project outputs may require that actions be taken by other stakeholders 
that the managing contractor has no direct control over, eg partner government 
implementing agencies. This distinction is illustrated in Figure 9. 

It is suggested that the distinction between project outputs and contractible outputs 
be defined in the text of the project design document, eg using a responsibility 
table for each output. The distinction should then be reflected in the scope of 
services and the memorandum of understanding, rather than being detailed in the 
Logframe matrix itself. The main reasons for recommending this approach are: 

• The Logframe matrix should remain a summary of the development 
logic and rationale, rather than include detail 

of different stakeholder responsibilities or contractual issues. 

• The project design document and the Logframe matrix should 
represent what AusAID and the partner government have jointly 
committed to. 

• The scope of services (what AusAID contracts a provider to deliver) 
and the memorandum of understanding (what the partner government 
agrees to contribute) indicate the respective responsibilities for 
contributing to the delivery of project outputs. 

• The exact specification of contractible outputs needs (to some extent) 
to be negotiated between AusAID and the firm selected 

to implement. 

The AusGUIDEIines: Project design document provide further guidance on documenting 
the respective responsibilities of key stakeholders in delivering project outputs. 



AusGUIDEIines 22 



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Figure 9 



Project and contractible outputs 



Relationship between contract and project design 



Project Output 



Contract Output 



Inputs and 

Activities (AusAID 

funded, AusAID or 

Partner managed, 

aareed in IVIOU) 



Logframe 



Goal 



Purposes 
(component objectives) 



Output 



Inputs and Activities 

(AusAID funded, AusAID 

or Partner managed, 



Inputs and Activities 
(Partner funded, agreed in 



(Program management 

inputs and activities - 

AusAID overinead) 



Inputs and Activities 

(defined by contractor in 

tender, cost contained in 

fixed price output) 



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Assumptions and risks 



Projects are always subject to influence by factors outside the direct control of 
project managers. This is particularly so of rural and institutional development type 
projects which require the cooperation of a number of different stakeholder groups, 
are often implemented in poorly resourced and unstable environments, and require 
behavioural change on the part of participants. 
The project 'box' is never isolated from external events. 

The fourth column of the matrix is used to highlight the external conditions 
(assumptions) that need to be fulfilled if the vertical logic of the project description 
is to hold true. This relationship between assumptions and the project description is 
shown in Figure 10. 

Understanding and assessing the nature of these assumptions is an essential part of 
good design. Failure to realistically identify and address assumptions 
is a common source of project failure. 

Some Logframe users prefer to talk about 'risks' in this fourth column. 
The distinction being that risks are negative statements about what might go 
wrong, whereas assumptions are positive statements about the conditions that need 
to be met if the project is to stay on track. Whether assumptions or risks are used, 
the purpose is the same, namely to assess and address external impacts on the 
project and improve where possible, the robustness of the design. 

The Logframe provides a starting point for further risk assessment, stakeholder 
consultations on risk, and the preparation of a risk management plan. The logframe 
addresses one of four broad categories of AusAID risks, namely some of the risks 
or threats to effective aid outcomes. In addition, a range of other tools designed to 
help identify risks can be applied. When conducting risk identification and 
assessment, one should also consider possible risks to output delivery/efficiency, to 
reputation and to capacity (refer to AusAID Risk Management Policy, AusAID 
Circular No. 29 of 8 November 1999 ). 

For further information refer to AusGUIDEHnes: Managing Risk. 



Figure 10 



Relationship between assumptions and objectives 



Goal 



Purpose 



Outputs 



Activities 




Only if these assumptions are met wiii tine next 
ievei of objectives be achieved. Assumptions are 
thus part of the vertical logic 



Assumptions 



Assumptions 



Assumptions 



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A decision tree to help analyse the importance of potential risks, and decide what 
should be done about them, is shown in Figure 11. 



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Figure 1 1 



Assumptions Decision Tree 



Is the 
assumption 
important? 



Yes 




Will it be 
realised? 



Almost certainly 



Do not include in 
the Logframe 



Likely 



Include as an 
assumption 



Unlikely 



Is it possible to re-design the project 
and influence the external factor? 



Yes 



No 



Re-design the project, eg add 

activities or outputs or reformulate 

purpose statements 



High risk project which 
should probably be rejected 



Horizontal logic 

Link to monitoring and evaluation 

The horizontal logic of the matrix helps establish the basis for monitoring and 
evaluating the project. The link between the Logframe and monitoring, review and 
evaluation is illustrated in Figure 12. 



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Figure 12 The Logframe and monitoring and evaluation 

Logframe hierarchy Type of Level of 

monitoring and information 

evaluation activity 



Goal 


Ex-post evaluation 


Outcomes/impact 


Purpose 


Review 


Outcomes/effectiven 
ess 


Component Objectives 


Outputs 


Activities 
Inputs 


Monitoring 


Input/Outputs 



This is of course a simplified framework, and needs to be applied and interpreted in 
a suitably flexible manner. For example, ex-post evaluation will include some 
element of assessing whether or not the purpose, component objectives and outputs 
have been achieved, and review will also assess performance in output delivery. 

Testing the project description 

Once the project description and assumptions have been drafted (columns 1 and 4 
of the matrix), the next task is to identify the indicators that might be used to 
measure and report on the achievement of objectives (column 2), and the source of 
that information (column 4). Because one reads across the matrix when analysing 
indicators and means of verification, this is referred to as the 'horizontal logic' . 

In considering how the achievement of objectives might be measured/verified, one 
is required to reflect on the clarity of objective statements, how feasible they will 
be to achieve, and how they might be more specifically defined. 
This is part of the iterative nature of the analysis. Each part of the framework may 
need to be revisited as new tests of logic are applied. 

Tlie level of detail 

In most cases, the specification of indicators and means of verification should 
focus on the output, component objective and purpose levels of the hierarchy. It is 
usually not appropriate to specify indicators for every activity (if activities are 
included in the logframe), as this tends to clutter the matrix with too much detail. 
Activity and input monitoring systems are often better defined and established 
during implementation by the management team. If the goal is a broad statement of 
development intention at the sectoral or national level, and the project itself is 
providing only a small contribution, it may not be useful to include indicators and 
means of verification for the goal. 

At the design stage, the level of detail that can be realistically expected in both the 
indicators and MOV columns will depend on (among other things): 

• the type of project 

• the information available at the time of design 

• whether or not the team includes a member with monitoring 
and evaluation design skills, and 

• how much time the design team has to do the work. 

For example, a three person design team which is in the field for three weeks to 
prepare a complex institutional strengthening project, should not necessarily be 
expected to prescribe the project monitoring and evaluation arrangements in great 



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detail. Rather, the horizontal logic of the matrix should be used as a means by 
which to: 

• test the clarity of objective statements; 

• indicate the type of information required and how it could be 
collected; 

• provide a framework within which project implementers can design 
the detailed elements of the monitoring and evaluation system once 
implementation commences; and 

• help determine the scope and scale of resources that will be required 
to establish and maintain an effective monitoring and evaluation 
function, and then include these resources in the project design and 
budget. 

Indicators 

Indicators specify how the achievement of project objectives will be measured and 
verified. They provide the basis for monitoring project progress (completion of 
activities and the delivery of outputs) and evaluating the achievement of outcomes 
(component objectives and purpose). 

Indicators are established in response to the question: 'How do I know whether or 
not what has been planned is actually happening or has happened?' We look for 
indications or signs to help us. For example: 'How do we know that more teachers 
have been trained this year? What would tell us that the training had had an impact 
on classroom performance? How do we measure progress towards the objective of 
strengthening community management capacity?' 

There are no absolute principles about what makes a good indicator of physical 
achievement, however the SMART characteristics listed below (Specific, 
Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Timely) are useful. 

Specific Key indicators need to be specific and to relate to the 
conditions the project seeks to change. Cement delivered to a site is 
not a good indicator of the number of houses constructed. Likewise 
seedlings distributed from a nursery may not be a valid indicator of 
plants established. The horizontal logic of the Logframe matrix helps 
to test this criteria. 

Measurable Quantifiable indicators are preferred because they 
are precise, can be aggregated and allow further statistical analysis 
of the data. However, development process indicators may be 
difficult to quantify, and qualitative indicators should also be used. 

Attainable The indicator (or information) must be attainable at 
reasonable cost using an appropriate collection method. Accurate 
and reliable information on such things as household incomes and 
crop production from small-scale dryland farming are, for example, 
notoriously difficult and expensive to actually collect. 

Relevant Indicators should be relevant to the management 
information needs of the people who will use the data. Field staff 
may need particular indicators that are of no relevance to senior 
managers, and vice-versa. Information must be sorted, screened, 
aggregated and summarised in different ways to meet different 
managers' needs. (However, the Logframe matrix itself should not 
attempt to contain all this detail). 

Timely An indicator needs to be collected and reported at the 
right time to influence many management decisions. Information 
about agricultural based activities, for example, must often come 



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within specific time periods if it is to be used to influence events in 
the whole cropping and processing cycle. There is also no point 
choosing indicators that can only tell you at the end of a project 
whether you succeeded or failed in meeting certain objectives. They 
may be lessons learned but the information comes too late for project 
personnel to act on. 

Where possible, indicators should incorporate elements of quantity, quality and 
time. This is about setting targets for project implementers to work towards and 
against which progress can then be measured. As the saying goes, "what gets 
measured gets managed". 

Caution should nevertheless be exercised when specifying quantified targets 
in the Logframe (rather than just the indicator or unit of measurement), particularly 
for projects which focus on process/capacity development outcomes. Two issues 
are important here: 

• The Logframe should provide a summary of the project framework 
and not contain more detail than is necessary. Details of the proposed 
management information system should be documented separately, 
using the Logframe as a guiding framework. 

• Targets may be indicated during design, but the detailed assessment of 
what is really feasible needs to be undertaken and agreed upon by the 
implementing agencies once the project starts. Setting targets is an 
important part of good planning, but the quality and usefulness of such 
targets depends very much on when and by whom they are set. Design 
teams will often not have adequate information to confidently propose 
specific targets, particularly for process oriented projects implemented 
in partnership with local agencies. 

Two particluar limitations associated with specifying indicators using the 
Logframe structure also need to be recognised: 

• The indicators selected may be relevant to some, but not all, 
stakeholders. It cannot necessarily be assumed that all stakeholders 
have common interests and information needs. 

• Even within one agency, information needs will vary between levels 
of the institutional hierarchy. As the level of management changes, so 
does the level of detail required and the nature 

of indicators. 
The indicators selected for inclusion in the Logframe are usually focused on meeting the 
information needs of selected stakeholders and at specific management level, 
eg project managers and AusAID. The point of view reflected in the hierarchy of 
objectives summarised in the project Logframe therefore needs to be broken down into 
sub-sets of objectives, indicators and targets for each level of management once project 
implementation starts. 

Means of verification 

The different means (and costs) of collecting information must also be considered 
when choosing appropriate indicators. Some indicators may give the information 
you would ideally like to have, but when the means of getting this is carefully 
considered it might become impractical, eg too complex or expensive. The 
Logframe matrix is a useful analytical and presentational structure for 
systematically identifying and assessing appropriate 'means 
of verification' for each indicator that is chosen. 

Once it is clear what information managers might require (the key indicators) 
it is then necessary to consider how this might be obtained. 

The following questions should be asked and answered: 



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• How should the information be collected, eg sample surveys, 
administrative records, national statistics (as in the census), workshops 
or focus groups, observation, PRA or rapid rural appraisal techniques? 

• What source is most appropriate? eg Who should be interviewed? 
Does the Bureau of Statistics already collect the required information? 
Is the source reliable? 

• Who should do it? eg extension staff, supervisors, an independent 
team? 

• When and how often should the information be collected, analysed 
and reported? eg monthly, annually, according to seasonal cropping 
cycles? 

• What formats are required to record the data being collected?' 

When developing answers to these questions, one of the main issues to keep 
in mind is the resource and capacity constraints that will be faced by those 
responsible for collecting the information. There is no point designing procedures 
which are too complex or costly as this will merely lead to frustration and 
disappointment in the outcomes. A balance must therefore be struck between what 
would be desirable in an ideal world and what is feasible in practice. 

Project staff will almost certainly need to collect some primary information 
specific to their project's work, but should first look to using existing sources 
where these are available. For the 'big picture' the Bureau of Statistics, research 
studies, donor and business reports may be useful sources (these are often available 
but not accessible to those who might use them to support field level management 
and monitoring). At the local level community, government and other service 
agency records may provide relevant planning and management information for 
project implementers. The main point is to build on existing systems and sources 
(where possible and appropriate) before establishing new ones. Check what's 
already there before assuming it isn't. 

Some examples of quantitative indicators that AusAID projects have commonly 
used to help measure and report on project outputs are shown at Output indicator 
exampies by KRA (attached). 

Indicators of process 

Development is not only about the delivery of better services. It cannot be judged 
alone by indicators which measure quantifiable changes in such things as the 
income, health or educational level of targeted groups. Many development projects 
(particularly those focusing on process and capacity building objectives) place 
equal emphasis on bringing about changes in the way that groups of people 
(particularly disadvantaged groups) view themselves and are able to act in their 
own interests. 

An example of possible indicators and means of verification for one process based 
objective is shown in Figure 13 below: 

Figure 13 Example of indicators of development process 

Objective Possible indicators Means of verification 

To increase Levels of awareness among Sample survey at schools, of 
awareness of, different groups within the women's groups and of male 
and community community (men, women, household heads conducted at 



' In the process of working these matters out, it might well become apparent that some specific information 
requirements as originally specified may not be feasible to collect due to constraints of cost or complexity. 
Indicators or statements of objective may then need to be re-considered and revised to be made more 
realistic/practical 



AusGUIDEIines 30 



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capacity to 
address, the 
local causes of 
environmental 
pollution. 



children) about specific 
environmental health and 
pollution issues. 

Establishment of community 
based environmental health 
and management committee. 
Membership, meetings and 
number and type of activities 
initiated. 



the beginning of the project and 
after two years. Conducted by 
environmental health officers 
using questionnaire to rank levels 
of awareness of specific issues 

Records of elected committee 
members, regularity of meetings 
and minutes of decisions made. 
Analysed and scored against 
established criteria every six 
months by management 
committee members 

Observation of how meetings are 
conducted and levels of 
participation. Undertaken by 
environmental health officers in 
line with planned schedule of 
meetings 



Some strengths and weaknesses of LFA 

For all its potential advantages LFA provides no magic solution to identifying or 
designing good programs or projects, no matter how clearly understood 
and professionally applied. 

To help avoid the common problems and possible dangers, those using 
the Logframe should: 

• Emphasise the importance of the LFA process as much as 

the matrix product. 

Ensure stakeholders participate in the analytical process. 

Avoid using the matrix as a blueprint through which to try 

and exert control over the project. 

Treat the matrix as a presentational summary. Keep it clear 

and concise. 

Be prepared to refine and revise the matrix as new information comes 

to light. 

Expect the first Logframe to be a draft which will require reworking. 

Do not place too much emphasis on detailed target specification 

within the matrix during the planning stages. 

When LFA is used in a flexible manner and a consultative approach is taken, 
it is a powerful analytical tool to support project planning and implementation. 

Figure 14 below provides a summary of some of the strengths and weaknesses of 
LFA2. 



Figure 14 



Strengths and weaknesses of LFA 



Issue 

Vertical Logic 



Potential 
strengths 

Provides logical link 
between means and 
ends. 

Places activity within 
broader development 
environment. 

Encourages 



Common 
problems 

Getting consensus 
on objectives. 

Reducing objectives 
to a simple linear 
chain. 

Inappropriate level 
of detail (too much 



Possible 
dangers 

Oversimplification 
of objective. 

Objectives 

become 

to rigid (blueprint). 

Ignoring 
unintended 



^Adapted from Des Gasper, "Logical Framework : A Critical Assessment", Institute of Social Studies 



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examination of risks. 


or too little). 


effects. 

Hides 
disagreements. 


Horizontal 


Requires analysis of 


Finding measurable 


Downgrading of 


Logic 


whether objectives 


indicators for higher 


less quantified 




are measurable. 


level objectives and 


objectives. 




Helps establish 


'social' projects. 


Rigid targets. 




monitoring and 


Establishing 


Infnrmptinn 




evaluation 


unrealistic targets 


II iivji II idiivji 1 
nv/Pflnarl 




framework. 


too early. 


UvCI lUCtU. 


Format and 


Links problem 


Prepared too late 


The same fixed 


application 


analysis to objective 


and mechanistically. 


format applied in 




setting. 


Problem analysis 


all cases. 




Visually accessible 


and objective 


Used for top-down 




and relatively easy to 


setting not always 


control. 




understand. 


linked. 


Can alienate staff. 




Can be applied in a 


Risks marginalised. 


Becomes a fetish 




participatory way. 


High demands for 
training and 
judgement. 


rather than a help. 



A selection of Logframe matrix examples, which include indicators and means of 
verification for component, purpose and goal level objectives (as well as outputs), are 
provided in Logframe matrix examples (attached). Updated examples of good practice 
will be identified by the Quality Assurance Group and added to the Intranet site. 

1 .4 Implementation, resource and cost schedules 

Once the Logframe matrix is considered sound, the structure can then be used as a 
framework for preparing implementation, resource and cost schedules. 

Activities leading to outputs can be specified in more detail and scheduled on a 
gannt chart format. The inputs required for each set of activities and/or outputs can 
then be specified and also scheduled over time. Finally, the cost of inputs can be 
determined and a project budget estimate and cash flow calculated. 

Guidelines on preparing these schedules are available in AusGUIDEIines: Preparing 
project sclieduies. 



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Examples of outputs for key result areas 

Below are some examples of quantitative outputs that AusAID project managers 
have commonly used to help measure and report on project performance. They 
have been grouped by key result area(KRA). The indicators listed do not address 
issues of quality. 

KRA Improve health 

Number of ministries, provincial governments and district 

administrations assisted 

Number of hospitals, clinics, and outreach services built 

or refurbished 

Number of people trained, (by gender and field of study; long 

and short-term) 

Number of men, women and children (by gender) with access 

to improved primary health care services 

Number of men and women with improved access to voluntary family 

planning and reproductive health services 

Number of adults and children (by gender) immunised 

Number of men, women and adolescents (by gender) with improved 

access to HIV/ AIDS and STDs prevention, care and counselling 

• Number of activities that encompass health promotion principles. 

KRA Increase access and quality of education 

Education indicators 

• Number of people with improved access to basic education 
(by gender) 

• Number of people with improved access to technical and vocational 
education (by gender) 

• Number of books/desks distributed and/or buildings constructed 
(related to access) 

• Number of national tests conducted (by gender) (results by gender 
if possible) 

• Number of teachers trained/employed (by gender) 

• Gender- sensitive curricula accredited and distributed to students (by 
gender) 

• Number of women and men principals trained 

• Number of vocational trade curricula developed/accredited 

• Improved retention rate (by gender) 

Training indicators 

• Number of people trained through scholarships (by gender and field of 
study) 

• Number of people trained through short term training (by gender) 

• Number of people trained in regional countries (by gender and field of 
study) 



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KRA Promote effective governance 

• Number of government and non-govemment personnel who received 
training (by gender) 

• Number of advisers and experts placed, (by range of expertise 
and by gender) 

• No and type of institutions strengthened 

• Number of non-govemment organisations strengthened 

• Number of people with improved access to microfinance 
and microenterprise development services (by gender) 

• Number of legal sector and election activities supported 

KRA Provide essential infrastructure 

• Number of people with improved access to essential infrastructure (by 
gender) 

• No and type of infrastructure services provided or improved 
(eg water supply and sanitation services, energy, transport and 
communications). Refer to project reports. 

• Number of people trained (by gender; long and short term training) 

• Number of 'infrastructure' agencies strengthened, eg local councils, 
community organisations, national institutions, state-owned 
enterprises 

• Evidence of support for creation of enabling environment for both 
public and private financing and management of infrastructure 

KRA Improve agriculture and rural development 

• Number of people receiving development food aid assistance 
(by gender). Refer to project reports. 

• Number of people with improved access to rural services (by gender). 
Refer to project reports. 

• Number of farmers implementing new approaches/technologies 
(by gender). Refer to project reports. 

• Number of people trained (by gender and long-term and short-term). 
Refer to Activity Management System. 

KRA Maximise environmental sustainability 

• Expenditure and type of assistance in support of international 
environmental programs 

• Number of people trained in environmental impact assessment 

and environment management (by gender) and long and short-term) 

• Number of Environmental Protection Agencies strengthened, 
including land and water management agencies, local councils, NGOs 
and community groups 

• Number of environment conservation projects implemented 

KRA Promote gender equity 

• Number of people trained (by gender; long and short term) 

• Number of men, women and children with access to services, 
eg primary health care, rural services (by gender) 

• Number of girls and boys enrolled in school 

• Number of local women's and men's groups established 



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• Number of women and men with improved access to markets 

• Number of women in decision-making positions 

KRA Deliver humanitarian and emergency assistance 

• Number of people provided with humanitarian assistance. 
Refer to project reports. 

• Number of people provided with emergency assistance. 
Refer to project reports. 

• No and type of longer-term preventative, preparedness and 
rehabilitation measures put in place 

• Number of people trained (long-term and short-term). 
Refer to Activity Management System. 



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Logframe Matrix examples 



A greater selection of 'good-practice' logframe matrix examples will soon be 
provided in this section. The matrices will be taken from 'real projects' and will 
encompass various sectors/development issues such as health, education, 
agriculture, gender, infrastructure, institutional strengthening, etc. 



Currently attached below is the logframe matrix from the 'Community Forestry 
Project' in Vietnam. 



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Community forestry project - Vietnam 





Project description 


Key indicators 


Means of Verification 


Assumptions/Risks 




Goal 

To increase wood supply and farmer incomes, and 
to help arrest the process of soil degradation in the 
project area on a sustainable basis. 


Volume of wood harvested. 
Family income from tree products. 
Soil structure and fertility. 


Annual sample survey of farmers conducted by 

DFOs. 

Soil sample survey in years one and four by 

FRI. 




1 


Component Purpose 1 

To establish improved community based forest 
management practices among members of the Ben 
Da Farmers Association (BFA). 


No. of 'active' BFA members. 

% of farmers 're-adopting' recommended 
practices in subsequent years and their 
understanding of key husbandry and/or 
management practices. 


Association membership and meeting 

attendance records kept by BFA. 

Annual sample survey of farmers conducted by 

DFOs. 


Market liberalisation policies are 
maintained . 

Market prices for commercial tree 
products exceed production costs. 


1.1 

1.2 
1.3 
1.4 


Outputs 

Land distribution will have been completed for 

garden forest and woodlots for 1 600 families. 

40 village extension workers will have been 

identified, trained and resourced. 

Farmer field days will have been conducted, 

supported by appropriate extension and awareness 

materials. 

BFA executives and staff will have been trained in 

management, accounting and administrative skills. 


Area distributed and no. of beneficiaries. 

No. of VEWs trained, average no. of days 
training conducted and VEW kits distributed. 
No. of farmer field days conducted, topics, 
location and attendance. 
No. of people trained by topic and self 
assessed quality of the training provided. 


Land register kept by district people's 
committee. 

VEW training register kept by DFOs and 

Forestry. Adviser, reported quarterly. Kit 

procurement records. 

Field day records kept by VEWs and reported 

quarterly. 

Training reports prepared by contracted trainers 

and training evaluation reports completed by 

trainees. Ex-post assessment 6 months after 

training 


At least 40 farmers are willing and 
able to become VEWs. 
District people's committee provides 
payment in rice for VEWs working 
with the project, and these farmers 
continue to work with the project 
after training. 
Extension. 


2 


Component Purpose 2 

To expand, diversify and improve the tree planting 
and forest management program in the project area. 


Ha. planted by species, survival rates, growth 

rates. 

% of targeted farmers adopting recommended 

practices. 


Annual sample survey of farmers conducted by 
DFOs and Forestry Adviser. 


Farmers find the trees and 
technology on offer relevant to their 
needs and have the time and 
resources to participate. 


2.1 

2.2 

2.3 
2.4 

2.5 


Outputs 

Four nurseries and input supply stores will have 

been established. 

Garden forest will have been established for 1 600 

families. 

Woodlots will have been established for 400 

families. 

Protection/economic forest will have been 

established in selected areas of 'bare' hills for 


No. of nurseries established , stock and 
distribution records. 

Ha. planted by species and no. of families. 
Ha. planted by species and no. of families. 
Ha. Planted. 
No. of trials by species and location. 


Nursery inventory and distribution records kept 

by nursery and input supply managers, reported 

quarterly. 

VEW field journal planting records, reported 

quarterly. 

FRI trial reports kept by field officer, annually. 


Farmers are able to transport 
seedlings from the central nurseries 
to their gardens. 

An adequate supply of quality seeds 
can be obtained. 



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Project description 


Key indicators 


IVIeans of Verification 


Assumptions/Risks 




community use. 

Agroforestry species trials will have been 

established. 








3 


Component Purpose 3 

To strengthen the technical and extension skills of 
the district forestry service officers working with 
farmers in the project area. 


Client satisfaction with the knowledge and 
approach of DFOs in the project area. 


Annual sample survey of farmers conducted by 
BFA (Forestry Adviser). 


The District Forestry Service does 
not prematurely transfer trained 
officers from the project area. 
DFS continues to actively support 
project objectives. 




Outputs 

DFOs will have been trained in extension and 
technical skills. 

DFOs will have been trained in project management, 
monitoring and reporting skills. 


No. of days training conducted per DFO by 
topic. 


DFO training records kept by Forestry Adviser 
and reported quarterly. 


The DFS maintains its commitment 
to a new approach to extension 
based on a partnership with farmers. 
Management reporting systems are 
accepted as relevant and useful by 
DFOs 



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Project Description 


Indicators 


Means of Verification 


Assumptions 


Goal 

To contribute to the protection of biological 
resources in the Maldives and thereby support 
long-term sustainable development. 


Species numbers and diversity within 
protected areas. 
Reduction in coral mining. 
Area protected by classification. 


Longitudinal marine surveys conducted 
by Marine Research Section with 
support from other stakeholders. 
Protected areas database managed by 
Environment Unit. 




Component 1: Institutional 
strengthening 

Purpose 

To develop government capacity to design and 
manage a system of protected areas. 


Actual achievement of component 1 and 2 
outputs against plan. 

Qualitative assessment through interviews 
and focus groups. 


Project progress reports. 

Yr. 3 evaluation of project progress and 
initial impact. 


Government uses enhanced capacity to support 
effective community participation in the planning 
and management of protected areas (PAs). 


Output 1.1 

Additional GOM staff recruited, a local Project 
Director and Project Manager appointed and 
operational resources provided through the 
GOM budget. 


No. of staff (M/F) working on PAS 

programs. 

Level and adequacy of GOM budget 

appropriations and expenditure. 


GOM staffing records. 
Interviews with agency management. 
GOM budget documents and 
expenditure records. 


Adequate financial resources are appropriated by 
GOM and released in a timely manner. 
Appropriately skilled and motivated staff are 
available and recruited. 


Output 1.2 

Training needs of selected government staff 
identified and appropriate training activities 
designed and delivered. 


Training Needs Analysis completed. 

No. of staff trained (M/F) by topic and type 

of training. 

% of trainees assessing training as useful 

against agreed rating scale. 


TNA report. 

Training completion reports 

Training evaluation reports. 


Trained staff continue to work with the project for 

a reasonable period after training. 

Training is relevant and focused on key 

competencies. 

Places are available at Australian institutions for 

relevant post-graduate courses. 


Output 1.3 

Legislative amendment requirements identified 
and new draft regulations prepared. 


Draft regulations prepared and endorsed 
by project coordinating committee (PCC) 
and NCPE. 


Legal expert's final report and PCC 
minutes. 


Recommended regulations are acceptable and 
endorsed in a timely manner. 


Output 1.4 

Operational Guidelines for Protected Area 
Systems management prepared. 


PAS guidelines approved by PCC, printed 
and distributed. 


Guidelines on file, distribution record, 
and PCC minutes. 


There is institutional and management support for 
using and following the guidelines. 


Output 1.5 

Biodiversity, socio-economic and cultural 
surveys carried out in identified priority areas 
and an appropriate data base established. 


No. of areas identified, area, type, pop'n. 
No. of surveys conducted by type. 
Data entered and accessible from 
database. 


Survey reports. 

Database printouts, accessibility, quality. 


Consensus can be reached on priority areas. 
The inventory and database can be locally 
managed and sustained after initial set-up and 
training. 



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Project Description 


Indicators 


Means of Verification 


Assumptions 


Output 1.6 

A financing framework for protected area 
management prepared. 


Financing framework prepared and 
endorsed by PCC. 


Framework document on file and PCC 
minutes. 


A workable financing framework is endorsed and 
established with stakeholder support. 



Component 2: Protected area 

establishment 

Purpose 

To establish 3 pilot protected areas which have 
broad based community support 


3 pilot areas established in law 
Management plans, regulations and local 
management structures in place. 
No. of active conflicts over resource use 
and recorded violations of regulations 


Government gazette. 
PA monitoring reports. 

PA monitoring reports. 


The regime established in pilot areas provides 
adequate benefits to community and private 
sector stakeholders to ensure their sustained 
support. 


Output 2.1 

A culturally appropriate framework and program 
for stakeholder consultations and participation 
devised and carried out 


Participation program and method 
documented and endorsed by PCC 
No. of consultations, type, purpose, 
attendance (M/F) 


Project files and PCC minutes. 
Aggregated field report records. 


These consultations result in a genuine 
partnership approach to PA management based 
on mutual interest and trust. 


Output 2.2 

Three pilot protected areas identified in 
consultation with community members and 
private sector stakeholders 


Signed MOU between stakeholders 
endorsed by PCC 


Project files and PCC minutes. 
Stakeholder interviews. 


Stakeholders can effectively negotiate a 
consensus position on resource management 
issues. 


Output 2.3 

Community training/information needs identified 
and a program of appropriate activities carries 
out 


Training/information needs assessment 

report produced and approved by PCC. 

No. of training activities, type, attendance 

(M/F) 

% of trainees assessing training as useful 

against agreed rating scale 


Project files and PCC minutes. 
Project training completion reports. 

Training evaluation reports files. 


The information provided leads to better 
understanding and informed participation among 
community stakeholders. 
Training effectively supports improved 
understanding, skills development and 
behavioural change. 


Output 2.4 

An analysis of the biological and socio-economic 
costs and benefits of implementing alternative 
management regimes within pilot areas carried 
out 


Cost benefit assessment completed and 
documented, identifying impact on 
different stakeholder groups 
Awareness of options among stakeholders 
effectively raised 


Project files. 
Awareness survey. 


The information is effectively accessed by 
stakeholders and provides useful management 
information to support PA design. 


Output 2.5 

Management plans for three pilot protected 
areas jointly prepared, endorsed by all key 


Quality of public participation process 
Memoranda of Agreement signed by 
stakeholders and endorsed by PCC 


AMC, PCC and TAG assessments. 
Project files. 
Stakeholder interviews. 


Management plans are implemented and 
provisions effectively enforced. 



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stakeholders and implemented 


Gazettal of protected areas 






Output 2.6 

Community based monitoring systems 
established 


Availability of appropriate information at 
the community level to support protected 
areas management 


Ranger reports. 

Focus group meetings with 

stakeholders. 


Information is effectively disseminated to 
stakeholders and used to address PA 
management problems. 



Coponent 2: Education and 

awareness 

Purpose 

To increase community awareness and 
understanding of the benefits and costs of 
environmental conservation and to promote their 
input to establishing protected areas. 


Change in knowledge, attitudes and 
practices. 


Longitudinal KAP surveys in targeted 
areas. Designed and supervised by 
CRMS. 


Increased awareness results in changed attitudes 
and behaviour. 


Output 3.1 

Informational materials and guidelines on the 
establishment of protected areas prepared for 
public and community use. 


Type, no. and quality of materials provided. 
Audience response. 


Education development centre records. 

Focus groups or other qualitative data 
collection techniques. 


Materials are effective and accessible to target 
groups. 


Output 3.2 

Radio and television programmes on protected 
areas issues prepared and broadcast. 


No. and quality of programs produced and 
total airtime. 
Audience response. 


Education development centre and 
Voice of Maldives records. 


Programs are watched/listened to by the public 
and provide relevant and useful information. 


Component 4: Planning and 
management support 
Purpose 

To effectively manage and report on Australian 
contributions to the project and coordinate 
activities with GOM stakeholders. 


No. of inception workshops, duration, 
location, attendance (M/F). 
Planned/actual achievement of outputs. 
Planned/actual expenditure. 
Satisfaction of GOM and AusAID with 
contractor performance. 


Inception workshop reports. 

Project progress reports. 
Project financial reports. 
Contractor performance assessment 
reports. 


An effective working relationship is established 
with GOM counterparts. 


Output 4.1 

A project office and management/monitoring 
systems established and equipment procured. 


No. of staff in place (M/F). 

Quality of service. 

Equipment procured and maintained. 


Project staffing records. 

PCC and AusAID assessment reports. 

Equipment register. 


Appropriately skilled and motivated Australian 
tong-term TA is recruited. 
Equipment is adequately maintained. 
AusAID and MC provide adequate resources. 


Output 4.2 

A Technical Assistance and training schedule 
designed and implemented. 


Schedules produced and approved by PCC 
Mandays TA provided (M/F), purpose. 


Project TA and training records. 


Training and short-term TA is appropriately 
designed and delivered and impacts positively on 



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location. 




work performance. 


Output 4.3 








Regular project coordinating committee 


No. of PCC meetings and attendance (M/F) 


PCC agendas and minutes. 


Meetings are professionally managed, attendance 


meetings held and minutes produced. 


Timeliness and quality of PCC minutes. 




is adequate and decisions are effectively acted 
upon. 


Output 4.4 








An inception report, annual plans, regular 


Reports completed on time, meeting 


GOM, managing contractor and AusAID 


Reports meet required quality criteria, provide 


progress reports and a completion report 


established quality criteria and endorsed by 


files. 


clear and useful management information and are 


prepared and submitted to AusAID and the 


the PCC. 




acted upon, as appropriate, by PCC members. 


GOM. 









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